This inquiry leads students through an investigation of modernization and development in three African countries: Kenya, Botswana, and Algeria. By investigating the compelling question “Does development mean progress?” students focus on the characteristics of development in these countries and respond to the challenges that each country faces in light of modernization. The inquiry is designed to be a series of research case studies in which students work in groups to research one of the three countries and write a one-page research summary on their assigned country. Teachers could assign and form groups in any number of ways, including having multiple groups of students researching the same country. Students then present their research to the class in the last formative performance task. Students will respond to the compelling question based on the perspective of their respective country or could choose to compare all three countries. In the extension activity, students work collaboratively to discuss commonalities and differences in development across these countries in Africa.