This inquiry provides students with an introduction to a historical example of religious tolerance and cooperation as it evolved in Islamic Spain, also known as Al-Andalus. Muslims settled in Spain and took control from Christian Visigoths in the 8th century. Over the six centuries of Muslim rule in Spain, Muslims, Jews, and Christians lived side by side, sometimes in conflict but more often in harmony. This inquiry examines the establishment of Al-Andalus as an emirate of the Umayyad Caliphate and later as a caliphate of its own in 926 CE. The inquiry provides students with an opportunity to examine the establishment of the caliphate of Córdoba as a center of knowledge, innovation, and religious tolerance.