Between 1899 and 1901, in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion, a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against foreign imperialism and associated Christian missionary activity. Western powers, including the United States, intervened and defeated Chinese forces. This inquiry investigates the multifaceted views of imperialism in China during the late 19th and early 20th centuries by investigating the compelling question “Do the Boxers deserve a bad rap?” Students consider not only the brutal events of the Boxer Rebellion in China, but also the reasons why the Boxers rebelled against foreign powers in the first place. While progressing through the inquiry, students consider the political, economic, and religious reasons for both imperialism and the Boxer Rebellion. Students then consider the actions of the Boxers and whether or not those actions might be misunderstood.