This inquiry leads students through an investigation of the intensification of economic inequality. By exploring the compelling question “Can we afford the super-rich?” students evaluate the historical trends and consider the epidemiological, political, and socio-environmental consequences of escalating economic inequality. The formative performance tasks build on knowledge and skills through the course of the inquiry to help students understand the influence of the super-rich on the lives of others through a progressively expanded lens of economic inequality, mental and physical health, democratic processes, and climate change mitigation efforts. Students create an evidence-based argument about why we cannot afford the super-rich or why the super-rich do not pose a risk to society and the environment in which humanity is embedded. Though students can complete the inquiry with the provided sources, teachers are encouraged to have students research the supporting questions to supplement them.