9-12 World History Kentucky

Imperialism in the Philippines

This inquiry leads students through an investigation of geopolitical relationships, particularly through an imperialistic lens.  Focusing on the Philippines, students investigate the compelling question—how should we remember Emilio Aguinaldo?—in order to examine questions of foreign intervention, self-determination, and national sovereignty. By investigating the compelling question, students will examine the United States’ relationship with the Philippines and, likewise, apply historiographical thinking in assessing this time in history. By completing this inquiry, students will begin to understand how historical context shapes interpretation of geopolitical questions. Using Aguinaldo as a case study, this inquiry allows students to consider the factors impacting international relationships, as well as historical perspectives.


Compelling Question:

How should we remember Emilio Aguinaldo?

Staging the Question:

Generate questions about the staging sources, paying close attention to origin, medium, and context.

Supporting Question Why did Aguinaldo align with the United States against the Spanish?

Formative Task Generate a list of reasons why Aguinaldo chose to align with the United States.

Sources Source A: Timeline
Source B: Excerpt from Where in the World is the Philippines?


Supporting Question What consequences did the Spanish-American War have for the Philippines?

Formative Task Create a graphic organizer that illustrates expectations and results of the Spanish-American War.

Sources Source A: Video, Results of the Spanish-American War
Source B: Proclamation of Independence, 1898
Source C: Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain, 1898
Source D: Philippine Constitution, 1899


Supporting Question Why did Aguinaldo fight against the United States in the Filipino War?

Formative Task Write a paragraph that describes Aguinaldo’s reasons for fighting against United States occupation.

Sources Source A: Proclamation of War, 1899
Source B: Aguinaldo’s Letter to the American People, 1900


Supporting Question To what extent did Aguinaldo’s actions reflect the reasons he argued for independence?

Formative Task Create a claim about the extent to which Aguinaldo’s government reflected the independence movement’s ideals.

Sources Source A: Aguinaldo’s obituary, 1964

Summative Performance Task

Argument: How should we remember Emilio Aguinaldo? Construct an argument (e.g., detailed outline, poster, essay) that discusses the compelling question using specific claims and relevant evidence from historical and contemporary sources while acknowledging competing views.
Extension: Assess the textbook’s depiction of Aguinaldo and determine if revisions are needed.

Taking Informed Action

Understand: Investigate the relationship between the United States and a country with whom there is a tense diplomatic relationship and determine the cause(s) for tension.
Assess: Analyze the reasons for tension and determine whether opposition to the United States is justified or not.
Act: Contact the country’s ambassador, or other stakeholder, sharing your perspective on how the opposition should be approached.